Thursday, December 26, 2019
INTRODUCTION Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) pipeline is an oil pipeline that transports crude oil Caspian Sea to the Turkish coast, over three countries. BTC Company is a joint venture company responsible for the construction and operation of the whole $4bn pipeline, led by BP as majority shareholder. Spread across Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey largest cross-border infrastructure construction project in the world dubbed the Ã¢â¬Å"contract of the centuryÃ¢â¬ . Financing was agreed after over two years of appraisal of the potential environmental and social impacts relating to the project. An underlying strategy is to reduce dependency on OPEC oil producers in the turbulent Middle East and to avoid Russia seen by America as a resurgentÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦ASSESS THE APPROACH FROM A PERSPECTIVE OF UTILIARIANISM AND DEONTOLOGY? According to utilitarianism,an action is morally right if it results in the greatest amount of good for the greatest number of people affected by the action Based on costÃ¢â¬ benefit analysis Rule utilitarianism * looks at classes of action and ask whether the underlying principles of an action produce more pleasure than pain for society in the long run Stakeholder | Cost | Benefit | BP and BTC amp; co | * $25m +$20m programs * Opportunity cost * Failure of local actors * Subjected to a corrupt environment * Misuse of revenue * Complaints from locals | * Good Reputation * Helping society * Compliance | Financiers | % of investments go to CSR |
Wednesday, December 18, 2019
In 2010, Disney Channel star Demi Lovato, age 18, began a hard journey of rehabilitation due to the eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, which causes one to binge eat and then purge because of poor body image. She has suffered since she was a child with bulimia nervosa because of heritability and social pressures. DemiÃ¢â¬â¢s mother and grandmother both suffered from bulimia, so it became DemiÃ¢â¬â¢s way of life. Not only was her eating disorder influenced by her genetics, but also because of the beauty pageants she participated in when she was younger. Eating disorders among celebrities arenÃ¢â¬â¢t out of the ordinary because of the constant fear of being removed from the public eye due to unsightly weight gain. They must hold up a certain image to stay Ã¢â¬Å"on topÃ¢â¬ and many believe they canÃ¢â¬â¢t without either remaining a constant weight or losing the excess. Teenagers are constantly bombarded with media on how to dress, how to act, and who to hang with to be considered Ã¢â¬Å"cool.Ã¢â¬ As stated by the Common Sense Census, the amount of time teenagers spend on some form of media is on average nine hours. More than half of the hours they are awake is spent consuming media, making them vulnerable to the ideas of the media. In recent years, the number of teenage girls that suffer from eating disorders has increased drastically due to this increase of media exposure, but it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t so much the amount of exposure as the kind of exposure. The question of how much influence media has on eating disordersShow MoreRelatedDemi Lovatos Credibility510 Words Ã |Ã 2 Pageselectronics. Demi Lovato shows why credibility is an important quality and how their actions can affect it. Demi LovatoÃ¢â¬â¢s career started when she was six years old on the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s show Barney Friends (Demi LovatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Career). She was on the show for two seasons. In 2006, Lovato had a couple small roles on different televisions shows. She also starred is DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s television short-series As the Bell Rings in 2007 for one season. LovatoÃ¢â¬â¢s first big break was in 2008 when she starred in the Disney ChannelRead MoreFrom Britney Spears And Justin Timberlake1787 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesBrothers and Miley Cyrus, the Disney Machine has produced numerous superstars that continue to be relevant in todays pop culture. No other empire has managed to produce talent quite like Disney. So, how does the Walt Disney Company do it? They combine fresh new talent with money, power, and a ton of control to produce shows and artists that are constantly influencing pop culture. A large number of today s pop stars are tied to Disney in one way or another. The Walt Disney Company is a multi-billionRead MoreDemi Lovato is the daughter of Patrick Lovato and Dianna Lovato. She casted in a few television1200 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDemi Lovato is the daughter of Patrick Lovato and Dianna Lovato. She casted in a few television shows and one of it was Ã¢â¬Å"Camp RockÃ¢â¬ from Disney musical TV movie (2006) which was the starting point of her singing career. Her first single Ã¢â¬Å"Get BackÃ¢â¬ was released in 2008, and 2 years later, Lovato released her second album Ã¢â¬Å"Here We Go AgainÃ¢â¬ which rated first on Billboard Hot 200. However in 2010, Lovato has been diagnosed with nervous breakdown and she went for rehab in order to treat her severe depressionRead MoreDisney CorporttionÃ ´s Negative Influence in Children via their Kid Programs626 Words Ã |Ã 2 Pagescartoon shows such as Mickey Mouse has now changed into a profit driven corporation. With TV shows, movies, clothing lines, toys, CDs, books, and theme parks, Disney is creating billions in revenue. However, the profits are at the cost of the youth. One way the youth are being harmed is children are absorbed in watching television shows that Disney plays daily. The amount of time spent watching television has increased in the years, while the amount of time spent playing games outside has decreased. BecauseRead MoreTeen Violence Essay2144 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesGale could reach higher levels of anger issues and hurt others as well as himself. Richard Gale is not the only world-renown celebrity that has been a victim to bullying. In September of 2011 during an interview with Ellen Degeneres, Demi Lovato, a Disney channel star, admitted that because of teen violence, she resulted to bulimia and anorexia to feel better about herself. The types of bullying that pushed her to these limits were not only cyber bullying, but abusive relationships between her andRead MoreEating Disorders And The Media3374 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pagesorder to get a job and to play the certain role. This immaculately high standard is then filtered down to the viewers of the shows and movies that the actors and actresses star in. Movie star Rebel Wilson, known more recently from Ã¢â¬Å"Pitch PerfectÃ¢â¬ , is known for being proud of her larger frame and says about other, thinner stars in her field Ã¢â¬Å"You see other actresses who are like Ã¢â¬ËOh I canÃ¢â¬â¢t really eat much lunch today because IÃ¢â¬â¢ve got that scene in my underwearÃ¢â¬â¢Ã ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"10 Female Celebrities Who Have AmazingRead MoreWomen and The Church: The Madonna/Whore Complex1629 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMadonna/Whore complex for the current generation. Most recently we have seen this occur with young, former, female Disney stars shedding their innocent skin to become sexual icons or daring rockers. Disney stars like Miley Cyrus, the girl who rarely wears clothes, Selena Gomez, who is receiving more mature yet sexual roles in films, and Demi Lovato, a dark rocker who is honest with topics Disney would never discuss are just a few examples. These women make achieving the Madonna/Whore status look easy. TheyRead MoreHistory of Disney Land2503 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagespaper will discuss the history and development of Walt Disneyland and Walt Disney himself. It will describe Walt DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s life and what gave him the idea to start such an amazing and magical kingdom. You will understand the reasons on why Walt decided to open up another park in the United States and then all over the world. Such an amazing park with so much history helps explain some of the secrets that Disneyland and Disney World posses. July 17, 1955 was the day the magnificent park was opened to
Tuesday, December 10, 2019
Causes of Childhood Obesity Childhood Obesity has become a growing problem with children today. Obesity now affects 17% of all children in the United States-triple the rate from just one generation ago (CDC). There are multiple reasons that more and more children are becoming obese. The decrease in physical activity, along with increased amounts of television, computers, and video games is one. Higher calorie and sugar intake is another reason for the rising numbers. Childhood obesity is a major concern for the next generation. If the public is not educated on the dangers of childhood obesity it will continue to increase and endanger the lives and future of the children of the tomorrow. Why is the obesity increasing in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s youth? More families have both caretakers working outside the house now than in the past years. Which means that children are more likely to get driven to school rather then walk or ride their bikes and after school it either leaves children home by themselves, or at after school programs. We will write a custom essay sample on Causes of Childhood Obesity or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page One third of children are not getting the recommended levels of moderate or vigorous activity, 10 percent are completely inactive (IOM). Children of today are spending more and more time sitting inside not doing anything physical compared to a few generations ago. They are also taking in too many calories due to the larger portion sizes, and high sugar intake. In the last, few years schools are trying to or already have succeeded in decreasing the amount of recess or play time the children have during the day, along with cutting after school sports and activities (HHS). Only about one-third of elementary children have daily physical education, and less than one-fifth have extracurricular physical activity programs at their school (YRBSS). Forty years ago, kids had playing fields to play on, parks to run around, there was no problem with traffic so they used to go out on the street to play, but that was the past (Fiona MacRae). Today, kids come home because they do not have, or cannot get to a park, or recreation center, and it is not as safe to play outside as it was years ago so there is no physical activity. Without regular daily cardio exercise, studies have shown that children are putting themselves at risk for more heath related problems, which can lead to shorter lifespans. The way children eat today is much different from even one generation ago. Children are taking in more calories, sugars and eating more foods that are less healthy. Since parents are working when children come home after school, there is no one to monitor what or how much they are eating. Families are also not eating as healthy as they were in the past. Children are eating dinners that are microwaved, or come out of a box; they are eating Ã¢â¬Å"SupersizedÃ¢â¬ fast food meals that have little no nutritional values. School lunch programs are also to blame for the rise in the numbers of overweight children. Research has demonstrated that buying lunch at school significantly increases the risk of becoming overweight. The pervasiveness of school a la carte and vending programs that sell foods and beverages that are high in calories and low in nutrients is well-documented. However, the food provided is constrained by budgetary and regulatory issues largely external to public health concerns. US Department of Agriculture guidelines require school food programs to provide minimum quantities of specific nutrients over a 3- to 7-day span but do not address maximum food amounts (Wilkinson). Television is playing a big part on how and what are children are eating. They see commercials for drinks that sound and taste good, but the reality is that are loaded with sugars and High consumption of sugar drinks, which have few, if any, nutrients, has been associated with obesity (Vartanian). Thirty years ago, a bottle of Coke was 10 ounces. Today, a kid can get a 64-ounce Big Gulp and when inflation is taken into account, it is cheaper. Economically, we really encourage people to over consume, Stang says. She compares portion sizes in 1957 and today: hamburger patties have gone from one ounce to six; muffins have gone from 1 1/ 2 ounces to half a pound; and movie popcorn has ballooned from three cups to 16 (Cross). Academically, childhood obesity affects how children preform in school. When compared with children who were never obese, boys and girls whose obesity persisted from the start of kindergarten through fifth grade performed worse on the math test, starting in first grade, and their lower performance continued through fifth grade. For boys whose obesity emerged later (in third or fifth grade), no such differences were found, and for girls who became obese later, poorer math performance was temporary. In addition, for girls who were persistently obese, having fewer social skills explained some part of their poorer math performance. In addition, for both boys and girls who were persistently obese, feeling sadder, lonelier, and more anxious also explained some of their poorer math performance (. Childhood obesity can lead to serious short and long-term health conditions, physical and psychological illness as well as a lower quality of life. Obese children are more likely to have respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, such as high cholesterol or high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, as well as ear nose and throat conditions. As obese children get older, they have a greater chance of becoming obese adults, which leads to heart disease, stroke, and several types of cancer (Deckelbaum). The immediate consequence of being overweight as perceived by children themselves is social discrimination and low self-esteem. In a recent, study by Schwimmer, et. al. 2003), obese children rated their quality of life with scores as low as those of young cancer patients on chemotherapy. In the study, 106 children aged 5 to 18 filled out a questionnaire used by pediatricians to evaluate quality of life issues. Children were asked to rate things like their ability to walk more than one block, play sports, sleep well, get along with others, and keep up in school. The results indicated that that teasing at school, difficulties playing spo rts, fatigue, sleep apnea and other obesity-linked problems severely affected obese childrens well-being.
Monday, December 2, 2019
Compare and contrast the codes and conventions of sitcoms Paper A Situation comedy or sit-com as we know is based on real life non-fictional events and situations. There are many different elements that make sit-coms what they are. Sit-coms tend to revolve around two basic situations, within these situations, comedy is generated. These situations are usually located at home with family and at work. Some main sitcoms at present are Friends, My family and Alley Mcbeal. The family is portrayed as a stable situation able to bear the outside world because its strength comes from within. Despite the audience expectations a sit-com episode is mostly a self-contained classical narrative and is set in the same way. The settings tend to be interiors; this is usually because it is filmed in front of a live audience so they cant go from place to place. This also keeps down the cost of set construction and location shooting which makes sit-coms so appealing to television companies. The plots also tend to be based around very few characters. The characters themselves tend to be over exaggerated, stereotypical people, typical examples: The smart, witty, sarcastic character e. g. Chandler in Friends, Fraiser and Niles in Fraiser. There are usually un-intelligent and a not so bright, and there is usually somebody attractive whether it is a male or female to appeal to everyone. I will do a comparison of a British and American sitcom and see how their conventions work, based Fawlty Towers and Friends. During the mid 50s rivalry developed between the BBC and the fairly recently launched ITV. We will write a custom essay sample on Compare and contrast the codes and conventions of sitcoms specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Compare and contrast the codes and conventions of sitcoms specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Compare and contrast the codes and conventions of sitcoms specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer ITV was broadcasting the popular American sitcom called I Love Lucy, the BBC soon found that it was loosing viewers to ITV and therefore boosted production of sitcoms that include: Hancocks Half Hour, Dads army, Fawlty Towers, Porridge and many more which are still popular today. I love Lucy sparked off the production off these British sitcoms and maybe if it hadnt been broadcasted here in Britain then probably none of these famous British sitcoms would have been made. These sitcoms, however, differ quite significantly due to the country, which they originate from. The difference is due to the countrys culture and social background; we can explore this by viewing an American sitcom, Friends, and a British sitcom, Fawlty Towers. Fawlty Towers and Friends are two very successful sitcoms but if we investigate further into the two we find that they both have different impacts on the audience as some methods of creating humour differ. One of the main differences of the two, outside of creating humour, is that they are both based in different countries and different times. Friends is based on the youthful, vibrant city of New York, USA based in the late 90s, whereas Fawlty Towers is based in the retired, quiet town of Torquay based in the mid 70s. I will investigate both sitcoms by analysing each using characterisation, types of humour used, plot and mis-en-sci ne. Mis-en-sci ne is looking at how the sitcom is constructed, by setting, props, non-verbal communication and dress codes. Fawlty Towers is based in Torquay and is a hotel run by Basil Fawlty and his wife Sybil Fawlty also two other main characters are Polly and Manual who work at the hotel. Basil is a comic but key character; he plays a vital role in fawlty towers, Basil addresses a sarcastic approach most of the time when he is frustrated, worried or angered; when things do not go his way, and also when talking to people that he considers less respected than him e. g. : Manual, Polly etc. He also has the perfect image of what fawlty towers should be: successful and popular especially with the higher class. This causes him to constantly think about himself and the reputation of himself and the hotel. The humour which basil creates is usually physical; he is a tall man and walks with strides, which makes him stand out from everyone else. Sybil, Basils wife, who seems to be authoritative and firm with Basil this maybe due to the fact that she is usually more friendly and therefore more popular with guests and staff therefore they look up to her, more so than Basil. Basil also may be afraid that she might leave him and to prevent this he tries to be kind and obeys her commands but usually frustration or confusion get in the way which may create humour. Sybil herself is an elegant and well-presented woman, the fact that she is married to Basil, who may be the complete opposite, makes the sitcom more entertaining as it causes great confusion, lack of communication which leads to arguments between the couple which all create humour in different ways. Polly is a young well-mannered girl working temporarily at the hotel. She is polite and acts respectful to guests and staff a lot like Sybil but with a lot less experience of working in a hotel. The fact that she is a lot like Sybil again causes a slight inability to communicate to Basil, as he differs greatly, especially in front of guests, which creates humour. Polly is the youngest in the Fawlty Towers and lacks experience in the Hotel Business because of this she is usually ignored by Basil who considers her to be incapable of thinking of good ideas and doing things no matter how hard she works. Although she is the youngest main character in Fawlty Towers, she is actually not that young compared to Friends. This shows us that Friends is aimed at the youthful generation where as Fawlty Towers is aimed at the older generation. Fawlty Towers produces many different types of humour purely due to the characteristics of the main characters. If one of the characters were taken out of fawlty towers it wouldnt be able to achieve all of the types of humour it currently contains. For example, Basils role in the sitcom is to provide verbal wit, ludicrous and preposterous humour. Without this role its unlikely he could have made Fawlty Towers so popular. The humour used is very corny however is what works to make the audience want more, we hear canned laughter which also takes place a lot in Friends to prove when the audience should laugh and find something funny there is a laughter in the background. Friends is an organic plot. This means that the plots are not in such strict logic or structure, because of this it is apparent that we drop in every week to observe how each character is coping with their private lives and what they do in certain situations. The impression is given that the characters are there all the time but we view them at an unstructured and unedited part of their daily lives. This may be the case with friends but it is not, however, with fawlty towers. In fawlty towers the whole episode is based around a certain event and only, usually, contains one narrative whereas friends contains two or three narratives. In Friends various characters can relate to characters in friends; Joey and maybe Phoebe can relate to Manuel as they all create humour without meaning to. Chandler can relate to Basil as they both create sarcasm, irony and verbal wit therefore creating humour purposefully. Joey is a comic and youthful character as his main role in the sitcom is to create humour. This contrast of characteristics among the characters makes the sitcom more entertaining rather then them all being all the same which would make it less interesting as their lives would be similar. There are no main characters in Friends unlike Fawlty towers where the episode is normally set around Basil. In friends all of the characters are equal, there are exactly three girls and three boys and what one character has another one lacks. For example Joey is not clever but is fashionable and is a womaniser where as Chandler is clever but is not much of a womaniser. Both Friends and Fawlty Towers have the catchy theme tune in the beginning to set the scene, which gets the audience going before they start watching the sitcom. The aim of a sitcom is to make an audience laugh, by using stereotypes the viewer finds the characters funny due to them doing actions or saying something that reminds them of themselves or someone they know. The main contents of a successful sitcom are the characters, the way each character interacts with one another with a sitcom, the audience gets to know the characters, and know what to expect from them. The setting of a sitcom is generally in a similar environment that most people would go to, e. g. Scrubs is based in the workplace, Men Behaving Badly is set in a flat and the characters from Friends either meet up in a cafi or in their apartments.